"Malabo Commitments Five Years on: Translating Lessons Learnt into Accelerated Action towards 2025"

24-25 November 2020

Virtual Platform Meeting


  1. The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) Partnership Platform (P.P.) This meeting is an annual partnership event that brings together key stakeholders including African governments, policy makers, research and learning institutions, civil society including farmers' organizations, the private sector and development partner organizations to assess progress made in implementing the CAADP goals. The meeting provides an opportunity for sharing and learning among stakeholders and includes a business session for progress review and planning.

  2. The 16th CAADP PP meeting was organized virtually by the African Union Commission (AUC) and the African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD) on 24th–25th November 2020.

  3. The 16th CAADP PP meeting followed the endorsement of the Inaugural 2017 and the Second 2019 CAADP Biennial Review (B.R.) Reports on the implementation of the Malabo Declaration by A.U. Heads of State and Government. The findings of these Reports revealed mixed performance and progress made individually by countries and collectively as the Continent. It should be noted that out of the 49 Member States that reported on implementing the Malabo Declaration, 36 had made positive progress between the two reviews towards achieving the Malabo Commitment targets by 2025.

  4. The 16th CAADP PP meeting happened six years after the adoption of the Malabo Declaration and hence assessed progress made in its implementation noting that the country CAADP process is yet to be fully anchored in National Agriculture Investment Plans (NAIPs) which are closely aligned with national planning frameworks. To this end, the meeting came up with pragmatic strategies, initiatives and policy options to increase momentum in Malabo implementation to accelerate agricultural growth and transformation. The CAADP PP meeting attracted about 400 participants from African Union Member States, the African Union Commission, the African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD), Regional Economic Communities (RECs), National Governments, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), African Farmers' Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, (including women's and youth organizations), Financial and Development Institutions, Agricultural Research and Technical Organizations, CAADP Non-State Actors Coalition (CNC), the Private Sector, Media Organizations, Donors/Development Partners.

  5. The 16th CAADP PP Session featured panel presentations and concurrent discussions centred on the main theme of the meeting: "Malabo Commitments Five Years on: Translating Lessons Learnt into Accelerated Action Towards 2025". The discussions were organized in six (6) parallel sessions according to the following sub-themes:- (i) Strengthening partnership for agricultural research, technology and mutual accountability: The case of the EU-funded CAADP-XP4 Programme (ii) Accelerated action toward implementation of Malabo: Developing and Financing Malabo-compliant National Agricultural Investment Plans (iii) Breaking the barriers curtailing progress towards attaining the goal of ending hunger (iv) Strengthening institutional capacities, partnerships, mutual accountability and learning (v) Unlocking the potential of AfCFTA towards tripling intra-African Trade in Agricultural Commodities and Services, and (vi) Strengthening the resilience of farming systems and livelihoods.

Several dignitaries graced the Opening Session of the 16th CAADP PP Meeting. Hon. Angela Thoko Didiza, Chair of the Specialized Technical Committee on Agriculture, Rural Development Water and Environment, and Minister of Agriculture, Land reforms and Rural Development of the Republic of South Africa, delivered the opening remarks. Her Excellency Amb. Josefa Sacko, the Commissioner for Rural Economy and Agriculture of the African Union Commission, made welcome remarks on behalf of the Chairperson of the African Union Commission. Other speakers included H.E Dr Ibrahim Assane Mayaki, the Chief Executive Officer of the AUDA-NEPAD as well as Mr Holger Kray, the Chair of the CAADP Development Partner Group and Practice Manager, Agriculture and Food Security at the World Bank.The keynote address for this session was delivered by Dr. Ousmane Badiane, the Chairman of Akademiya 2063.

The remarks underscored the need to make Africa's food systems more robust and resilient in the wake of the COVID19 pandemic. The speakers noted a disconnect between policy, planning and budget processes and called for reforms in policy implementation in the run-up to 2025, the Malabo Declaration target year. It would require integration of lessons learned, including supporting countries to have the NAIPs and CAADP processes streamlined into national planning and budget processes to accelerate the pace towards achieving targets. They observed that the CAADP strategy needed a more direct positioning of the food systems as the anchor for agricultural growth and transformation. Development Partners were called upon to place greater focus on supporting countries build systemic capacity for sector coordination, planning and implementation. These efforts ought to be aligned to the emerging agenda of accelerating the implementation of lessons towards Malabo Declaration targets. Financing agriculture should be an economy-wide agenda beyond ministries of finance. Ministers of agriculture needed to galvanize the support of their cabinets and Heads of State more than ever in efforts to finance the investment plans. Considered crucial too, was attracting the right private sector players, particularly businesses that understand inclusive commercial growth for the next steps pushing CAADP.

  1. To advance African agriculture, a call was made to (i) strengthen CAADP at the country and regional levels using the biennial reporting mechanism (ii) ensure that NAIPs of African countries are Malabo-compliant (iii) ensure that accountability mechanisms are inextricably linked to the Malabo commitments (iv) purposefully integrate national plans and programmes on agriculture into the biennial reporting mechanisms (v) improve efficiency and effectiveness in coming up with our biennial review reports, and (vi) improve the biennial review processes and reporting mechanisms.

  2. Based on the evidence from the results of the 2020 biennial review, member states urged AUC, AUDA-NEPAD Agency, RECs and Development Partners to proactively and significantly increase their efforts towards influencing and supporting the Member States to embark on formulating/reviewing and implementing their NAIPs. Subsequently, the meeting also urged for collaboration of all partners through adopting effective and efficient coordination mechanisms.

  3. The Opening Session of the CAADP PP meeting was preceded by a pre-event entitled, "Strengthening Partnership for Agricultural Research, Technology and Mutual Accountability: the case of the E.U. funded CAADP-XP4 Programme". The main highlight of the pre-event was the launch of the USD 25 million E.U. funded CAADP-XP4 Programme as a step for addressing the challenge for strengthening partnership of Agriculture for research development institutions.


  1. The CAADP PP event enabled partners to reflect on the overall role of the Malabo goals and targets and their anchorage within national development plans. The meeting noted that the Biennial Review Report is a fundamental instrument that could facilitate coordination of different agricultural efforts and interventions on the continent. This would be possible if the outcomes are tailored to country and regional systems to track better, measure and report the progress being achieved against agreed result areas. The meeting:

a) Noted that significant progress has been made towards implementing the 2014 CAADP Malabo Declaration, although more needs to be done to ensure that its targets are met by 2025. This is particularly so considering the new sets of critical challenges that threaten to derail the progress so far made towards achieving the CAADP Malabo Targets. Such challenges include the effects of COVID-19, rising debts, heightened climate variability, desert locust infestations in East Africa, natural disasters, conflict especially in fragile states and humanitarian emergencies, which have all adversely affected Africa's agri-food systems and distracted the implementation of Malabo-CAADP commitments at many fronts.

b) Highlighted the impacts and opportunities of such threats on food security and hence the urgency of the need for change. It was mentioned that the pandemic had compounded existing vulnerabilities in the food system, revealing the fragility of the food system through exposing flaws in how food is produced, delivered and consumed. On the positive side, the crisis offers various opportunities including repurposing public expenditure to improve the efficiency of public spending, reinvesting funds to maximize the "triple wins" from the agri-food system – productivity/incomes, resilience, and nutritional outcomes as well as reorienting public policies to create the enabling environment for private investment to drive the transformation of the agri-food system;

c) Recognized the significance of multi-sectoral commitment and co-ownership of agricultural transformation agenda within public sectors, including Finance, infrastructure, trade, industry, health, science and technology, education. Hence, underscoring the need for a multi-sectoral approach to policy framework development, monitoring and evaluation processes as well as delivery and accountability as critical to the realization of the Malabo Declaration targets.

d) Appreciated the significant progress that has been made in terms of prioritizing social protection as a major component of poverty reduction especially to the rural poor and as a strategy for rural development in the context of Malabo declaration. This is even more relevant owing to the challenges compounded by the COVID -19.

e) Recognized the efforts made towards reviewing and implementing the NAIPs aligned to the Malabo Declaration despite the conflicting agricultural planning cycles of countries. It was observed that countries often suffer from fatigue of too many policies, strategies, plans and programmes some pre-dating the NAIP and others following the NAIPs. This is often because development partners have wanted to create a separate 'vessel' for their support and some governments have allowed it.

f) Recognized the need for innovative financing mechanisms and models for implementing NAIPs/RAIPs based on an unprecedented number of instruments and Agricultural potential in the continent. Enhancing investment in both public and private finance to agriculture is critical to the transformation of the Africa Agriculture especially upholding the earlier commitment to allocate at least 10% of public expenditure to agriculture, and to ensure its efficiency and effectiveness.

g) Emphasized the need to create and enhance necessary appropriate policy and institutional conditions and support systems that facilities private investment in agriculture, agri-business and agro-industries, by giving priority to local investors. Successful agriculture transformation has been driven by well-designed long term inclusive strategies, good governance, establishing innovative public-private partnerships in the form of a contract programme as well as strong political will for better results.

h) While the progress made in tracking Africa's performance towards meeting the Malabo Declaration through the CAADP Biennial Review process is commendable, more can still be done to institute credible level data-management systems to practically and effectively monitor the implementation of NAIPs and, ensure mutual accountability through upholding the culture of inclusive joint sector reviews

i) Highlighted the rise in Agricultural value addition, increase in Public expenditure on the Agriculture Sector, increased intra-African trade in agricultural commodities decline in terms of poverty level and intensity, however, the African economies have failed to sustain the strong growth of the last decades. GDP of most African economies have remained constant for the last five years.

j) Recognized the importance of data which must be transparent and evidence based. The ability to generate, analyse and manage data and information facilitates evidence based policy development and tracking of progress of implementation of the B.R.

k) Was concerned about the high rates of hunger, malnutrition and poverty due to the outbreaks of desert locus, fall Army worm, natural hazards like drought, floods, conflict and insecurity continued to be a challenge in Africa. Although Government instituted measures such as Social protection, measures put in place to save lives and livelihoods are not adequate.

l) Recognized the important role played by Member States and RECS throughout the Biennial Review process as well as the need for African Union institutions, to work with Technical Partners, to continuously review indicators to ensure that the data is available, accessible, and comparable across countries.

m) Trade facilitation efforts should be targeted to sustaining export diversification towards emerging and fast-growing economies, expanding intra-African trade by further opening countries to extra regional trade flows. Policy priorities across the countries are more inclined to strengthening markets and institutions while technology and infrastructure have received limited attention.

Appreciated that sustainable Agriculture development and a sound food system will help in reducing poverty, youth employment, empower women and small holder farmers and other disadvantaged segments of the population

n) Fast track implementation of the Framework of Boosting Intra African Trade in Agricultural Commodities and Services to advance implementation of the opportunities that the AfCFTA hold for agriculture.


The 16th CAADP PP noted that, the Biennial Review Report outcomes is a fundamental instrument that will facilitate coordination of different agricultural efforts and interventions on the continent and will further be tailored to country and regional systems to better track, measure and report progress being achieved against agreed results areas. Various presentations were made during the 16th CAADP PP meeting. The following recommendations emanated from the meeting.

a. Recommends the utilization of the results of the two cycles of the Biennial Review Reports to inspire and inform country investments and programmes identified in their reformulated NAIPs. The NAIPs provide an appropriate framework for corrective and adaptive action that may be implied by the Biennial Review as well as the recognized needs for all CAADP constituents, particularly at country level. The meeting further recommended that stakeholders of the NAIPs at the country level should be motivated and their capacity built, so that they can effectively implement the NAIPs;

b. Urges the Member States to domesticate the Malabo Declaration by increasing the number of countries with Malabo compliant NAIPs 2.0. This requires enhancing funding and spending efficiency in agriculture through (i) increasing overall public spending by creating national/regional agricultural development banks, broadening revenue base and raising revenue collection efficiency; (ii) efficiency of existing budget resources. Investments in agR&D, infrastructure, data and M&E; (iii) actively engaging the private sector to complement the public sector in agriculture investment and (iv) Countries to implement the AfCFTA to boost revenues/fiscal space through trade; (v) Members States must also actively explore and deploy other innovating ways for project financing in order to deliver the infrastructure needs of the agriculture sector

c. Recommends improving the use of science/evidence in decision making/implementation through (i) Increasing funding to enhance the national capacities to generate evidence and the use of evidence in decision making/implementation; (ii) developing evidence delivery mechanisms, for example, Local Analysis Networks/country strategic analysis & knowledge centres/ knowledge brokerage platforms; (iii) embarking on training programs to ensure there is a critical mass of experts in each country with tools and skills to provide policy guidance in all seven areas of Malabo; (iv) the AUC/AUDA-NEPAD should consider developing the CAADP Technical Networks further to provide the technical support needed in the implementation of NAIPs;

d. Urges the Member States to improve the Policy environment by developing agricultural policy delivery mechanisms, for example, adopting Smart Policy Instruments for improved development and implementation of NAIPs; minimizing/ removing policy inconsistencies to enhance efficiency in implementation; improving inter-ministerial coordination in the implementation of the NAIPs;

e. Recommended improving Accountability to Actions and Results in the design & Implementation. This requires improving Accountability mechanisms to ensure that plans are implemented. The entrenchment of Joint Sector Reviews and Biennial Reviews in NAIP implementation processes is critical. In addition, improvement of the tracking of the NAIPs implementation, use of medium-term expenditure frameworks and institutionalizing them in CAADP processes are equally essential. More so, credibility and transparency in budgeting, as well as accountability in spending and mutual learning of results are required.

f. Underscores the Role of Trade and the (AfCFTA) as a source of revenue and growth – but is still low from and within Africa. Hence, governments were called upon to implement the AfCFTA to increase intra-and extra-regional trade. This would be enhanced through reduction of Non-tariff measures (e.g. SPS etc.) and other regulatory and administrative barriers in African countries, e.g. abrupt export bans. Development of regional value chains to compete significantly internationally is crucial in addition to boosting agricultural productivity through investing in modern production techniques/post-harvest loss reduction to increase marketable surplus. Improving infrastructure and trade services would facilitate trade significantly as well as industrialization in agriculture to make agriculture more sustainable;

a. Urges based on the evidence from the results of the 2020 biennial review, AUC, AUDA-NEPAD Agency, RECs and Development Partners to proactively and significantly increase their efforts towards influencing and supporting the Member States to embark on formulating/reviewing and implementing their NAIPs. Subsequently, the meeting also urged for collaboration of all partners through adopting effective and efficient coordination mechanisms.

b. Recommends African Countries to recommit to CAADP financing. Member State and Governments should mobilize financing institutions and dedicated private sector actors to invest in agriculture by giving attractive loans and resource products to local producers, to stimulate financing to Agriculture and encouraging inter-regional trade in agricultural commodities. It further recommends exploring the following options aggressively: Private equity, Impact investment, Climate finance; Blended finance, Shared risk facilities, Mobile money; Remittance bonds, Credit guarantee facilities, Social enterprise grants, Traditional lending, Micro-finance, PPPs, Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains.

c. Encourages that, the implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area be done in the interest of agriculture transformation and food security across the continent by prioritizing the incentivization of African agriculture productive capacities, facilitating access to African markets for African agro-allied goods produced by Africans in Africa, protects the livelihoods of smallholder farmers, women and youth, other disadvantaged segments of the population and creates wealth for the local food systems actors in the Agriculture value chains.

  1. Encourages Governments to provide an enabling policy environment for interaction of non-state actors, drawing lessons from successful innovative public-private partnerships within Africa and, from the South-South Cooperation.

  2. Recommends the integration of all Malabo thematic areas including youth employment, women empowerment and persons with disabilities, small agribusiness enterprises, smallholder farmers and other Non-State Actors (NSAs) into the next generation of NAIPs/RAIPs to make them Malabo-compliant and responsive. The meeting Further reiterates the recommendations of the 13th CAADP PP on using the Country Agribusiness Partnership Framework (CAP-F), linkages, risk-sharing for NAIP implementation and public-private dialogue for accountability

  3. Recommends the support of current and emerging initiatives to improving the use of new evidence-based research products, science and adopting technologies that inform smart and efficient agriculture concurrent with earlier recommendations on the need to finance and implement the agriculture science and research agenda.

  4. Recommends the strengthening of credible and accurate data systems and Agricultural M&E at country, regional and continental levels to informed policy and decision making. AUC/DREA, the AUDA NEPAD Agency and development partners to work together to harmonize the different data collection and reporting processes and cycles, with particular reference to Agenda 2063 the SDGs and Malabo declaration commitments tracking through a coordinated Biennial Review Mechanism and reporting.

  5. Calls for the promotion and sustaining the CAADP Champions initiative and harnessing their voices toward motivating leadership and championing of "Africa agricultural transformation" at global, continental, regional and country levels.

  6. Stresses the need for concerted efforts in improving communication and advocacy of the B.R. results by developing innovative approaches designed at motivating new commitments for driving the effective implementation of NAIPs. This should include the use of communication tools, including the Africa Agriculture Transformation Scorecard and dashboard.

  7. Ensuring that the Investment process and the Accountability Review process are intrinsically linked, and they should not be seen as separate. While the investment process is not new, the accountability process should be harnessed, credible and institutionalized, harness, and factor in the lessons learned from successful experiences into how we plan into the agricultural sector

  8. Calls for improved efficiency and effectiveness in communicating B.R. findings and recommendations

  9. Recommends that more focus should be given to value addition and integrating small Holders farmers who make the bulk of the producers of the agricultural product

  10. Supports capacity building of NSA to effectively engage in the CAADP implementation process through knowledge sharing and regular policy dialogues to articulate advocacy messages of CAADP implementation, while also drawing the attention of policy makers to the commitments they made to support CAADP implementation

  11. Urges the need to revitalize and promote inter-ministerial collaboration and cooperation e. g between the Ministry of Agriculture, Ministries of Trade and Ministries of Finance.

  12. Encourages All stakeholders, especially national governments and regional institutions in Africa should devise game-changing solutions for our food systems in line with the Malabo commitments and the SDG 2030. It was stressed that transforming agriculture in Africa would not be sufficient without efficient, resilient and sustainable food systems.

  13. Recommends for political commitments at the highest level of Government. Guaranteeing national leadership role is critical in advancing the food security agenda by putting in place policies and strategies that enhance institutional capacities and capabilities for accelerated implementation of sustainable food and nutrition systems.

  14. Ensures adequate strategic food reserves and storage facilities that reduce post-harvest food loss and waste including through Public-Private Partnership

  15. Bilateral donors and multilateral agencies should Support the efforts of African countries and fund the national investment plans that best respond to country-specific priorities.

  16. Recognizes the 'fair shares' of farmers' own investments, whilst ensuring public investment is aligned with and acts as a catalyst for, smallholders' efforts by providing services and inputs that matter most to small farmers

  17. Creates a positive enabling environments including enhancing land tenure security and protecting against evictions, promoting beneficial pricing mechanisms, increasing investment in extension, research, rural finance and sustainable agriculture.


All CAADP Partners are called upon to adopt the Communiqué of the 16th CAADP PP Meeting convened on 24 to 25 November 2020 in Addis Ababa, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Done in Addis Ababa, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

On 25th day of November 2020

The participants